Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy Technologies



2012 | ISBN: 0309253675 9780309253673 | 239 pages | PDF | 10.55 Mb


This book identifies gaps in knowledge and research needed to advance the understanding of induced seismicity; identify gaps in induced seismic hazard assessment methodologies and the research to close those gaps; and assess options for steps toward best practices with regard to energy development and induced seismicity potential

In the past several years, some energy technologies that inject or extract fluid from the Earth, such as oil and gas development and geothermal energy development, have been found or suspected to cause seismic events, drawing heightened public attention.
Although only a very small fraction of injection and extraction activities among the hundreds of thousands of energy development sites in the United States have induced seismicity at levels noticeable to the public, understanding the potential for inducing felt seismic events and for limiting their occurrence and impacts is desirable for state and federal agencies, industry, and the public at large.
To better understand, limit, and respond to induced seismic events, work is needed to build robust prediction models, to assess potential hazards, and to help relevant agencies coordinate to address them .

CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
SUMMARY
1 INDUCED SEISMICITY AND ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
Introduction to Induced Seismicity and Study Background
Earthquakes and their Measurement
Energy Technologies and Induced Seismicity
Historical Induced Seismicity Related to Energy Activities
Concluding Remarks
References
2 TYPES AND CAUSES OF INDUCED SEISMICITY
Introduction
Factors Affecting Initiation and Magnitude of a Seismic Event
Seismicity Induced by Fluid Injection
Seismicity Induced by Fluid Withdrawal
Summary
References
3 ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES: HOW THEY WORK AND THEIR INDUCED SEISMICITY POTENTIAL
Geothermal Energy
Conventional Oil and Gas Production Including Enhanced Oil Recovery
Unconventional Oil and Gas Production Including Shale Reservoirs
Injection Wells Used for the Disposal of Water Associated with Energy Extraction
Carbon Capture and Storage
Discussion
References
4 GOVERNMENT ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES RELATED TO UNDERGROUND INJECTION AND INDUCED SEISMICITY
Federal Authorities
State Efforts
Existing Regulatory Framework for Fluid Withdrawal
Concluding Remarks
References
5 PATHS FORWARD TO UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING INDUCED SEISMICITY
HAZARD AND RISK IN ENERGY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
Hazards and Risks Associated with Induced Seismicity
Quantifying Hazard and Risk
References
6 STEPS TOWARD A ˇ°BEST PRACTICESˇ± PROTOCOL
The Importance of Considering the Adoption of Best Practices
Existing Induced Seismicity Checklists and Protocols
The Use of a Traffic Light Control System
Mitigating the Effects of Induced Seismicity on Public and Private Facilities
References
7 ADDRESSING INDUCED SEISMICITY: FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, RESEARCH, AND PROPOSED ACTIONS
Types and Causes of Induced Seismicity
Energy Technologies: How They Work
Oversight, Monitoring, and Coordination of Underground Injection Activities for Mitigating Induced Seismicity
Hazards and Risk Assessment
Best Practices
APPENDIXES
A Committee and Staff Biographies
B Meeting Agendas
C Observations of Induced Seismicity
D Letters Between Senator Bingamin and Secretary Chu
E Earthquake Size Estimates and Negative Earthquake Magnitudes
F The Failure of the Baldwin Hills Reservoir Dam
G Seismic Event Due to Fluid Injection or Withdrawal
H Pore Pressure Induced by Fluid Injection
I Hydraulic Fracture Microseismic Monitoring
J Hydraulic Fracturing in Eola Field, Garvin County, Oklahoma and Potential Link to Induced Seismicity
K Paradox Valley Unit Salt Water Injection Project
L Estimated Injected Fluid Volumes
M Additional Acknowledgments

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